"Today the Commission launches five

non-compliance investigations

under the

Digital Markets Act

(DMA)" into Alphabet, Google Play, Google Search, Apple and Meta. "We suspect that the solutions proposed by the three companies are not fully compliant with the DMA. We will now investigate the companies' compliance with the DMA, to ensure open and contestable digital markets in Europe", said Margrethe

Vestager, Executive Vice President of the European Commission

and responsible for competition policy of the community executive. 

The investigation relates to Alphabet's rules for steering in Google Play and self-preferencing in Google Search, Apple's rules for steering in the App Store, and the choice screen for Safari and on the 'pay or consent' model: Meta's 'payment and consent model'.   

The EU executive then launched investigative initiatives related to

Apple's new pricing structure

for alternative app stores and Amazon's rating practices on its marketplace.

The Commission has opened proceedings to assess

whether the measures implemented by Alphabet and Apple in relation to their app store obligations violate the DMA

Article 5(4) of the DMA requires gatekeepers to allow app developers to "direct" consumers to offers outside the gatekeepers' app stores, free of charge.

The Commission is concerned that Alphabet and Apple's measures may not be fully compliant as they impose various restrictions and limitations

. These limit, among other things, the ability of developers to freely communicate and promote offers and to directly conclude contracts, including by imposing various charges.

Meta's “pay or agree” model

. Finally, the Commission has opened proceedings against Meta to investigate whether the recently introduced “pay or consent” model for users in the EU complies with Article 5(2) of the DMA which requires gatekeepers to obtain users' consent when they intend to combine or cross-use their personal data between different core services of the platform. The Commission is concerned that the binary choice imposed by Meta's "pay or consent" model

may not provide a real alternative

if users do not consent, thus failing to achieve the goal of preventing the accumulation of personal data by gatekeepers .